To investigate which drugs are currently approved for veterinary use. The type and properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredient, as well as the administration route and dosage form, will be summarized.
Milk is a source of energy and macronutrients, but it is also a source of neonatal exposure to xenobiotics, such as phytochemicals, pharmaceutical compounds or drugs and toxins. These small molecules are passed from the blood across the mammary epithelial blood-milk barrier to the milk of lactating mammals, such as cows, sheep, goats and humans. Milk can therefore be regarded as a route of elimination of these compounds in the lactating adult, and a source of secondary exposure to the offspring and other consumers of dairy products. In food-producing animals receiving pharmaceuticals, residue studies are done to determine the withdrawal time. Withdrawal time is the time that must elapse between the last administration of a veterinary medicine and production of milk, to ensure that the food does not contain levels of the medicine that exceed the maximum residue limit. After the withdrawal time, the milk can be added to the food chain again. Unfortunately, results from residue studies in one species are not easily translated to other species. Further, residue studies for drugs, toxins and phytochemicals are ethically and economically difficult to conduct in humans. This supports the need for mechanistic mathematical models that are able to predict the exposure of these small molecules in milk, like physiologically based pharmacokinetic models. However, there is no current overview of drugs that are used in milk-producing animals. We can fill the gap by investigating which drugs currently possess market authorization for veterinary use.
15, 30 & 45hp: Analysis of used active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), administration route and dosage forms. Analysis of species differences between market authorized drug products.
30 & 45hp: extraction of approved veterinary drug products from regulatory agencies across the world. Identifying and analyzing physicochemical properties of APIs used. Identifying and analyzing elimination routes of used APIs. When applicable, linking the withdrawal period for each drug product to the elimination of the API.